Urine doesn't flow: either the bladder is empty or you are in a false passage. You can try a 50 ml flush of saline using a bladder syringe. If this can be introduced and withdrawn, you are probably in the bladder
Catheter won't pass: try a bigger catheter. This sounds paradoxical, but a bigger catheter is stiffer and thus might negotiate a stricture or enlarged prostate. Make sure that the lidocaine gel has had long enough to work. If passing the catheter is painful, the perineal muscles will go into spasm, making passage of the catheter much more difficult.
Blood in the urine: a small amount of blood in the urine or around the penile orifice indicates trauma inserting the catheter. If clots or dark blood are present in the urine, consider a three-way catheter to allow for irrigation.
If you are still having problems, talk to a urologist. A suprapubic catheter is sometimes required, but urologists have a number of other tricks that are useful for passing catheters.
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