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Top100 Diseases

 psychiatric diseases

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Depression is a very common mood disorder that affects 18% of the population at some point in their lives. Females are at greater risk than males, with the female:male ratio 2:1. A first episode can occur at any age, with the mean onset being in the late 30s.

What to learn
  • Etiology and risk factors for depression.
  • Classification and diagnostic criteria for depressive illness.
  • Mental state examination and assessment of suicide risk.
  • Treatment of depression: medical, psychological, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT).

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Schizophrenia is a common psychiatric illness characterized by disorders of thought and perception and leading to psychotic symptoms and social withdrawal. There is a lifetime prevalence of about 1% with no gender bias. Age of onset peaks at 15 to 25 years of age for males and 25 to 35 years of age in women.

What to learn
  • Risk factors and epidemiology.
  • Classification and diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia.
  • Risk assessment: harm to self, harm to others, risk of exploitation.
  • Medical and psychological management, and prognosis.

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Bipolar affective disorder
Bipolar affective disorder is a mood disorder characterized by cyclical instability of mood, which can vary between depressive and manic states over time. Lifetime prevalence is about 1% with no gender bias.

What to learn
  • Etiology and risk factors.
  • Classification and diagnostic criteria.
  • Management with antidepressants, mood stabilizers, and psychological methods.

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Anxiety disorders
These comprise a spectrum of disorders that include generalized anxiety disorder, panic attacks, phobias (agoraphobia, social phobia, and specific phobias), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and post-traumatic stress disorder.

What to learn
  • Etiology, epidemiology, and risk factors for anxiety disorders.
  • Diagnostic criteria for anxiety disorders; focus on OCD and phobias for more specific symptoms.
  • Management with medication and psychological approaches, in particular cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT).

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Alcohol and substance dependence is a complex and common problem involving medical, psychological, and social disciplines in its management.

What to learn
  • Etiology and risk factors for alcohol and substance addiction.
  • Acute management of alcohol and drug withdrawal and intoxication.
  • Medical and psychological complications of alcohol and drug addiction.
  • Options for treatment.

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Eating disorders
Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are predominantly diseases of young Caucasian women; the sex bias is 10:1 female to male. Anorexia has a prevalence of 0.2% to 1% in adolescent females, whereas bulimia is more common and has a prevalence of 1.5 to 2.5%. Eating disorders are associated with disorders of self-esteem and body image.

What to learn
  • Diagnostic criteria for anorexia and bulimia nervosa.
  • Management of eating disorders.
  • Medical complications of the eating disorders and indications for hospitalization.

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