StudentConsult
Log in 
Contact us 
HomeAbout STUDENT CONSULTHelp
   
Top Features
Self Test
Top 100 Diseases
Case Studies

Free Stuff
Survival Guides
Videos & Animations
Practical Procedures
Calculators

Contests
Play Games
 

 
Top100 Diseases

 gastrointestinal diseases

 Back to Top100 
 
 
  
Gastritis, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GORD) and peptic ulceration
Gastrointestinal tract diseases include a spectrum of diseases comprising inflammation and ulceration of the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum caused by mucosal damage due to particularly acidic gastric secretions. In the West, 10% of the population experience GI tract disease at some time in their lives. GORD and ulcers normally develop in adulthood and follow a history of repeated healing and relapse over many years.

What to learn
  • Risk factors, causative agents, and protective mechanisms, in particular the role of Helicobacter pylori.
  • Symptoms and signs of gastritis, gastroesophageal reflux, and peptic ulcers.
  • Diagnostic tests in peptic ulcer disease.
  • Medical and surgical management.

Back to top
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
Inflammatory bowel disease comprises a group of common disorders characterized by idiopathic inflammation of the intestinal wall. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (UC) are the two most common conditions. Prevalence in the UK is 30 to 50 per 100,000 for Crohn's disease and 80 per 100,000 for UC. Neither etiology is fully understood.

What to learn
  • The clinical and pathological features of UC and Crohn's disease; a common theme for questions is to compare and contrast the two.
  • The complications and sequelae of IBD.
  • The systemic manifestations of IBD.
  • Medical and surgical management.

Back to top
Viral hepatitis
This is a common condition caused by a group of unrelated hepatotrophic viruses, all of which cause a primary hepatitis or inflammation of the liver. Clinical features are similar regardless of etiology. Hepatitis viruses A to G are now recognized and other, nonhepatotrophic viruses such as Epstein-Barr and cytomegalovirus have also been known to cause hepatitis.

What to learn
  • The characteristics and route of infection of hepatitis viruses A to E, with emphasis on B and C.
  • Symptoms and signs of hepatitis, and diagnostic tests.
  • The presence of serum antibody and antigen for hepatitis B and C through the course of the infection.
  • Methods of treatment and immunization.

Back to top
Colorectal carcinoma
Colorectal carcinoma is an adenocarcinoma derived from glandular epithelium in the mucosa of the large bowel. This is the second most common cause of death from neoplasia in the UK, with a peak incidence between 60 and 70 years of age.

What to learn
  • Etiology and risk factors for colorectal cancer.
  • Understand the progression from previous adenomas and the genetic model of successive mutations that cause neoplasia.
  • Symptoms, signs, and diagnosis.
  • Classification, staging, and grading.
  • Methods of treatment and prognosis.

Back to top
Oesophageal cancer
Oesophageal cancer has an incidence of 5-10 per 100 000 per year in the UK. Squamous cell and adenocarcinoma are the most common types. Prognosis is usually poor because the disease is advanced by the time symptoms arise.

What to learn
  • Aetiology and risk factors for oesophageal cancer. Understand the concept of metaplasia in Barrett's oesophagus and how this can progress
  • Symptoms and signs, diagnosis by gastroscopy
  • Management options and prognosis

Back to top
Gastric adenocarcinoma
Gastric adenocarcinoma is a common cancer arising from the mucous-secreting epithelial cells in the stomach. Incidence is 20 to 40 per 100,000 per year in the UK. It is typically seen after the age of 30, with an increased incidence over 50 years of age. The male:female ratio is 3:2.

What to learn
  • Etiology and risk factors for gastric cancer.
  • The geographical distribution.
  • The sequence of genetic changes leading to neoplasia.
  • Classification of gastric cancers.
  • Symptoms, signs and methods of diagnosis.
  • Surgical and medical management.

Back to top
Malabsorption syndromes
Malabsorption disorders comprise a spectrum of disorders that produce symptoms of weight loss, abdominal distension, diarrhea with loose bulky stool, steatorrhea, and anemia. Mechanisms include disorders of intraluminal digestion by pancreatic enzymes, solubilization by bile acids, terminal digestion by mucosal enzymes, and transepithelial transport.

What to learn
  • The physiological mechanisms involved in digestion and how they can fail in the various types of malabsorption syndromes.
  • Clinical and pathological features of celiac disease and its treatment.
  • Know an example for each of the types of malabsorption mentioned above.

Back to top
Esophageal cancer
Esophageal cancer has an incidence of 5 to 10 per 100,000 per year in the UK. Squamous cell and adenocarcinoma are the most common types. Prognosis is usually poor because the disease is advanced by the time symptoms arise.

What to learn
  • Symptoms and signs, diagnosis by gastroscopy.
  • Management options and prognosis.
  • Understand the concept of metaplasia in Barrett's esophagus and how this can progress.
  • Etiology and risk factors for esophageal cancer.

Back to top
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Read our Terms and Conditions of Use and our Privacy Policy.
For problems or suggestions concerning this service, please contact: studentconsult.help@elsevier.com